Dim Study 1 – British Journal of Cancer

2012 Effect of diindolylmethane supplementation on low-grade cervical cytological  abnormalities: double-blind, randomised, controlled trial

The study was a double-blind, randomised, controlled, primary prevention trial where participants were asked to take either 150 mg DIM from BioResponse DIM (BioResponse, LLC, Boulder, CO, USA) or a placebo (provided as identical oral capsules containing calcium carbonate, maltodextrin (a complex carbo-hydrate sourced from corn starch), and the colouring agent Opadry NS Orange) every day for 6 months.


Dim Study 2 – Society of Toxicology

2003 Evaluation of Chronic Dietary Exposure to Indole-3-Carbinol and Absorption-Enhanced 3, 3-Diindolylmethane

 Males and females were analyzed separately. When assumptions were reasonably satisfied, treatments were compared using one-way ANOVA and all pairwise comparisons with Tukey’s multiple comparison adjustment.

Dim Study 3 – Departments of Biochemistry and Cancer Studies, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Physiological modeling of formulated and Crystalline 3,3 Diindolymethane pharmacokinetics.

3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a naturally occurring indole, which is currently under investigation as a potential chemopreventive agent. The concentrations of DIM in plasma, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and brain tissues were determined following oral administration of two different formulations to mice (250 mg/kg). Mice were sacrificed periodically from 0 to 24 h after administration of either a crystalline or an absorption-enhanced formulation (Bio-Response-DIM; Indolplex) of DIM, and plasma and tissue concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (UV detection, 280 nm). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties of the two different formulations. The final model included parameters reflecting linear first-order absorption, systemic clearance, and distributional clearance in the remainder compartment, which were considered independent of formulation. All pharmacokinetic profiles from the two formulations were fitted simultaneously to estimate unknown model parameters. Plasma and tissue concentration-time profiles exhibited a rapid rise to peak values at 0.5 to 1 h, followed by a polyexponential decline with an extended terminal phase. These profiles were well described by the final model and unknown parameters were estimated with relatively low coefficients of variation. Relative drug exposure and absorption parameters suggest that BioResponse-DIM exhibited approximately 50% higher bioavailability than the crystalline formulation. Clearance of DIM was estimated as 7.18 ml/h. This is the first study to characterize the pharmacokinetics of DIM in mice, and the established PBPK model should prove useful in the design and analysis of future preclinical studies aimed at evaluating the in vivo pharmacological effects of DIM.

Dim Study 4 – Kathie M. Dalessandri, Gary L. Firestone, Mark D. Fitch, H. Leon Bradlow, and Leonard F. Bjeldanes – California Breast Cancer Research Program

Pilot Study: Effect of 3, 3′-Diindolylmethane Supplements on Urinary Hormone Metabolites in Postmenopausal Women With a History of Breast Cancer

Dose ranging studies done with I3C on healthy women at high risk for breast cancer showed that a dose of 300–400 mg/d was sufficient to induce an increased
2-OHE1/16α-OHE1 ratio without significant side effects (50). DIM was used in this study because it is a major product of I3C after digestion in the stomach and has been shown to be a primary circulating metabolite following oral use of I3C (2). Study of breast cancer survivors was the important step 
forward in this study, because no one had established that survivors of breast cancer were able to raise their 2-OHE1/16α-OHE1 ratio in the same way as healthy subjects
who were at high risk for breast cancer..