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The human gut-resident commensal microbiota is a unique ecosystem associated with various bodily functions, especially immunity. Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a crucial role in autoimmune disease pathogenesis as well as in bowel-related diseases. However, the role of the gut microbiota, which causes or influences systemic immunity in autoimmune diseases, remains elusive. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor, is a master moderator of host-microbiota interactions because it shapes the immune system and impacts host metabolism. In addition, treatment optimization while minimizing potential adverse effects in autoimmune diseases remains essential, and modulation of the gut microbiota constitutes a potential clinical therapy. Here, we present evidence linking gut microbiota dysbiosis with autoimmune mechanisms involved in disease development to identify future effective approaches based on the gut microbiota for preventing autoimmune diseases.

Probiotics have gained worldwide use during the last two decades. However, which probiotic to use in which clinical condition has remained confusing in some clinical conditions. We convened a workshop at Yale in conjunction with Harvard in 2005, inviting a spectrum of probiotic authorities to discuss and reach conclusions on recommendations for use in common clinical conditions; the workshop was reconvened again in 2008 and in 2011. Each time the group of authorities was enlarged and varied depending on research studies. This article lists the recommendations updated from 2011 and is amended to bring it up to date in childhood and adult diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, allergic disorders, and radiation enteritis pending our 4th Triennial Yale/Harvard workshop to be convened in 2015.

A combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 was compared to placebo for relief of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A total of 113 subjects at 3 clinical sites were randomised in a 2:1 ratio and followed for 12 weeks. Subjects ingested either 2 capsules of active study product, containing 50×109 cfu of live organisms, or 2 placebo capsules daily. Endpoints included improvement in abdominal pain, days of pain, distention, stool consistency and frequency, quality of life (QOL), and adequate relief (AR) of IBS symptoms. IBS subtypes constipation (IBS-C), diarrhoea (IBS-D), and mixed (IBS-M) were evaluated separately; the effect of gender was also examined. For all efficacy endpoints improvement of 30% or more vs placebo was considered clinically significant. With the exception of pain intensity and AR, the endpoints demonstrated a therapeutic advantage of active over placebo for IBS symptoms in at least some subject subgroups. The IBS-D and female subgroups showed the largest and most consistent effects. Stool frequency and consistency were evaluated in the IBS-C and IBS-D subgroups, and improvement of active vs placebo was noted in both. QOL improvement was seen overall and in specific domains. Adverse events (AEs) were limited to 7 subjects; all were of mild or moderate intensity except one, severe cramping. Four AEs in the same subject in the placebo group were judged to be related to study product; these resolved by the end of study. There were no serious AEs.

Study 4

Probiotic Species in the Modulation of Gut Microbiota: An Overview

Probiotics are microbial strains that are beneficial to health, and their potential has recently led to a significant increase in research interest in their use to modulate the gut microbiota. The animal gut is a complex ecosystem of host cells, microbiota, and available nutrients, and the microbiota prevents several degenerative diseases in humans and animals via immunomodulation. The gut microbiota and its influence on human nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immunity are addressed, and several probiotic species and strains are discussed to improve the understanding of modulation of gut microbiota. This paper provides a broad review of several Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and other coliform bacteria as the most promising probiotic species and their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malignancy, liver disease, and inflammatory bowel disease. This review also discusses a recent study of Saccharomyces spp. in which inflammation was prevented by promotion of proinflammatory immune function via the production of short-chain fatty acids. A summary of gut microbiota alteration with future perspectives is also provided.